In 1988, they switched to the Robinson projection, on which high latitudes are less distorted in size than in shape in an attempt to more accurately capture the three-dimensional shape of the earth in a two-dimensional figure. A projeção de Mercator é um marco na história da cartografia por ser uma das primeiras a mostrar o planeta inteiro. As we have learned, the Mercator is not a good overall scaled map when viewing large areas. Who were Mercator and Peters? But although this angular layout makes navigation easier, accuracy and bias are major disadvantages that can't be ignored. In reality, the Mercator map was never intended to be used as a wall map and by the time Peters started complaining about it, the Mercator map was well on its way out of fashion anyway. Unfortunately, geographers and cartographers agree that neither map projection is appropriate—the Mercator vs. Peters controversy is, therefore, a moot point. Compromise projections like the Robinson and Winkel Tripel are far superior to their predecessors because they present the world as globe-like, making them worthy of support from almost all geographers. Peters only chose to compare his strange-looking map to the Mercator map because he knew that the latter was an inappropriate representation of the earth, but so was his. And how do their projections affect our view of the world? A tendência dos povos de valorizarem sua cultura e seu modo de vida, considerando-se modelo para todos os demais, denomina-se etnocentrismo. Superfície Terrestre - Projeção - Mapa. MERCATOR vs PETERS Projeções de Mercator e Peters: Diferentes maneiras de ver o Mundo! So which projection is better? This tells them which compass direction to continually sail in until they reach their destination. Isso porque os europeus estavam conquistando e dominando territórios e povos e, por isso, sentiam-se superiores. Except where otherwise noted, images on this site are by Tobias Jung and are … O mapa de Mercator representa o mundo visto pelos europeus de acordo com seus interesses. All claims made by advocates for the Peters projection about Mercator distortion are correct, though one map being less wrong than the other … Proponents of the Peters projection map claim that their map is an accurate, fair, and unbiased depiction of the world when comparing theirs to the almost-defunct Mercator map, which features enlarged depictions of euro-centric countries and continents. Africa, for example, is depicted as smaller than North America when it is, in reality, three times larger. One of the characteristics, of area, shape or direction, must be sacrificed. Namely, the Mercator projection minimizes non-European or American countries and continents while enlarging privileged world powers. Ignorant statements like "Only now are the first non-chauvinistic maps being produced without bias to any one region of the earth. Total Points. Matt Rosenberg is an award-winning geographer and the author of "The Handy Geography Answer Book" and "The Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook. Non-rectangular maps have been around for a long time. So, the correct tool in this case is the world mapped using the Peters projection. The Mercator map was designed as an aid to navigators with straight lines, loxodromes or rhumb lines—representing lines of constant compass bearing—that are perfect for "true" direction. The Mercator map has always been inadequate as a world map due to its rectangular grid and shape, but geographically illiterate publishers once found it useful for designing wall, atlas, and book maps, even maps found in newspapers published by non-geographers. One of us! Advertisement. The Mercator projection (/ m ər ˈ k eɪ t ər /) is a cylindrical map projection presented by Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. Finally, in 1998, the Society began using the Winkel Tripel projection, which features an even better balance between size and shape than the Robinson projection. Today 's Points. The Peters Projection world map is one of the most stimulating, and controversial, images of the world. You need to get 100% to score the 6 points available. Mercator VS. Peters The Superhuman section spent their class time today researching the difference between Peters Projection maps and the traditional Mercator map. Compare the map projections Mercator and Miller. November 11, 2018 7 Comments. These are the projections that you are most likely to see today. Many feel that these discrepancies reflect racism and prejudice against underprivileged and developing countries. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peters_projectionFrom "The West Wing" Season 2 Episode 16 The Gall-Peter’s map projection was first published by James Gall in 1855. Gall-Peters projection (Wikimedia Commons) In a development that just might make academic cartographers pull out their remaining hair in frustration, Boston’s public schools began using the Peters projection in social studies classes last week.The news coverage (see the Grauniad’s) is the usual straw man argument about the Mercator and the false dichotomy between it and the Peters… Fortunately, over the past few decades, the Mercator projection has fallen into disuse by most reliable sources. A Mercator vs. Peters controvérsia é realmente um ponto discutível. The Prime Meridian: Establishing Global Time and Space, M.A., Geography, California State University - Northridge, B.A., Geography, University of California - Davis. It was presented by German historian and journalist Arno Peters in 1973 (Rosenberg, 2013), who claimed that the map created by Gall – Peters projection are more fairly than the widely accepted map, Mercator projection … A projeção de Peters invertida mostra o mundo na visão terceiro-mundista do planeta, considerando-se o momento histórico em que ela surgiu. Mercator, ao contrário de árabes e italianos, colocou o norte na parte de cima do seu mapa. Embora o mapa-múndi de Peters continue expressando uma visão eurocêntrica do mundo, é visível o destaque dado aos países de baixa latitude, os quais, na projeção de Mercator, tinham suas áreas subestimadas. If a navigator wishes to sail from Spain to the West Indies using this map, all they have to do is draw a line between the two points. What are the strengths and weaknesses of their projections? Peters only chose to compare his strange-looking map to the Mercator map because he knew that the latter was an inappropriate representation of the earth, but so was his. Os meridianos e paralelos cruzavam-se sempre em um ângulo reto, o que permitia, com uma bússola na mão, aos navegadores orientarem-se pelos pontos cardeais e colaterais. When this map was first introduced by historian and cartographer Dr. Arno Peters at a Press Conference in Germany in 1974 it generated a firestorm of debate. But simply closing yourself off to any further discussion of or support for the point isn't going to help you in any way. Get started! Outra projeção que merece destaque é a de Peters, reelaborada em 1952 pelo historiador alemão Arno Peters e publicada, pela primeira vez, em 1973. Both maps are rectangular projections that are poor representations of a spherical planet. Todos os mapas são representações gráficas e planas da superfície terrestre. Mercator has become the default option for online mapmaking, simply because so many data visualization maps rely on Google Maps or OpenStreetMap … New believers in the Peters map were vociferous in demanding the use of this newer, better map. Ambos os mapas são projeções retangulares e são representações pobres do planeta. Actions. Essa visão foi consolidada com o passar do tempo. Today's Rank--0. Projeções de Mercator e Peters Entre as projeções cartográficas existentes ao longo do tempo, as mais conhecidas são as projeções de Mercator e Peters , no entanto existem outros tipos de projeções , classificados de acordo com a superfície de projeção (planas, cônicas ou cilíndricas) e de acordo com as propriedades … This is why Mercator beats out Peters in the world of cartography, and why Google Maps uses a modified Mercator projection. At this time it was simply called the Gall orthographic. In addition, Mercator only distorts longitudinal distances (except very close to the poles), whereas Peters screws up the scale almost everywhere for both longitude and latitude. Compare these to this map which corrects for distortions and preserves the true size and shape of Greenland at low … Even the United Nations Development Programme began using the Peters projection in its maps. Start studying Mercator vs. Peters Projection. Entre as projeções cartográficas existentes ao longo do tempo, as mais conhecidas são as projeções de Mercator e Peters, no entanto existem outros tipos de projeções, classificados de acordo com a superfície de projeção (planas, cônicas ou cilíndricas) e de acordo com as propriedades (equivalentes, conformes e equidistantes). There's a lot you could say there. In a 1980s study, two British geographers discovered that the Mercator map did not exist among dozens of atlases examined. Ela é uma projeção conforme. In 1967, Arno Peters, a German filmmaker, devised a map projection identical to Gall's orthographic projection and presented it in 1973 as a "new invention". Com a ajuda do astrolábio e com as coordenadas do mapa, os navegado res conseguiam determinar a latitude e realizar suas viagens com mais segurança. 6. Mas aqui é como cada um ganhou destaque e, na maioria dos casos, o uso indevido. In addition, Mercator only distorts longitudinal distances (except very close to the poles), whereas Peters screws up the scale almost everywhere for both longitude and latitude. The National Geographic Society adopted the Van der Grinten projection, which encloses the world in a circle, in 1922. The Mercator Projection. Assim, a Europa, além de ficar no centro e na parte de cima do mapa, ficou maior do que é na realidade, reforçando, simbolicamente, sua posição de superioridade. Servia, assim, às pretensões dos países subdesenvolvidos, principalmente africanos e asiáticos, que conseguiram sua independência política durante o processo de descolonização do pós-Guerra. This is why Mercator beats out Peters in the world of cartography, and why Google Maps uses a modified Mercator projection. Game Points. Map projections: Mercator vs Gall-Peters learn by taking a quiz; Online quiz to learn Map projections: Mercator vs Gall-Peters; Your Skills & Rank. To highlight the difference in distortion at low and high latitudes, I've superimposed Greenland over Africa in all three projections. We will start by explaining the original purpose of the Mercator projection, designed with rhumb lines in order to assist sailors in navigation, and then continue to explain the history of the Peters projection as well as the intentions aimed at improving the political inequality presented in the Mercator. Gall-Peters Mercator; Creator: James Gall / Arno Peters (1852 / 1967) Gerardus Mercator (1569) Group: Cylindric: Cylindric: Property: Equal-area: Conformal: Other Names: Gall Orthographic; Peters projection — Remarks: Original design by James Gall, independently developed again by Arno Peters in 1967 and presented to the … As Mercator maps were already spiraling into obsoletion, a historian attempted to speed up this process by presenting a new map. But the popularity of the Peters Projection was likely due to a lack of knowledge about basic cartography, as this projection is still quite flawed. The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. In essence, the Peters projection was a response to a question that had already been answered. The Mercator projection was developed in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator as a navigational tool. German historian and journalist Arno Peters called a press conference in 1973 to announce his "new" map projection that treated each country fairly by representing their areas more accurately. The Peters simply isn’t … Entretanto, quando foi assinado o Acordo de Washington, em 1884, entre Estados Unidos e Reino Unido, tomou-se o Meridiano de Greenwich como referencial de longitude e de fuso horário. Try this amazing Mercator And Gall Peters Map Projections quiz which has been attempted 80 times by avid quiz takers. Today, relatively few use either the Peters or Mercator map, yet the evangelizing continues. But here's how each came to prominence and, in most cases, misuse. and to defend the Mercator projection. They insisted that organizations switch to the "fairer" map immediately. While the Peters projection does (almost) represent land area accurately, all map projections distort the shape of the earth, a sphere. However, the Peters projection came to be seen as the lesser of two evils. However, because most people are happily unaware of this notion, they will look at a Mercator projection and believe Greenland is bigger than Africa. Map found via reddit, click for larger version. In 1989, seven North American professional geographic organizations (including the American Cartographic Association, National Council for Geographic Education, Association of American Geographers, and the National Geographic Society) adopted a resolution that called for a ban on all rectangular coordinate maps, including the Mercator and Peters projections. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Peters is an equal-area projection which became the centrepiece of a controversy surrounding the political implications of map design. Mercator and Peters explain all in the Chat Show. Até hoje, ela é utilizada na navegação marítima, principalmente pelo fato de acentuar as áreas em altas latitudes, destacando as regiões polares. Also explore over 42 similar quizzes in this category. Therefore, Peters argued, the Mercator projection shows a euro-centric bias and harms the world's perception of developing countries. The Mercator vs. Peters controversy is truly a moot point. However, it can accurately be zoomed into a local scale with precision. A projeção de Mercator distorce muito o tamanho das terras, principalmente as localizadas em altas latitudes, mas preserva a forma de continentes e países. The Mercator, however, makes the North look much larger. Peters vs Mercator According to The Guardian, the Mercator projection, by pushing the equator below the halfway line of the map, while handier for representing navigation routes, exaggerates the size of land masses in the northern hemisphere. This map's grid is rectangular and lines of latitude and longitude are parallel throughout. Most alternative projections now in use, such as Robinson, Van der Grinten, or Eckert IV, still do not preserve the quality of ‘equal area’. Both maps are rectangular projections and are poor representations of the planet. In many ways the past debates over the Mercator are moot: arguing over the right projection for wall-sized world maps—Mercator vs. Peters vs. Robinson—is fighting the last war. It became the standard map projection for most applications and is still cemented as the mental map of most westerners today. Foi elaborada no século XVI com a expansão marítima europeia. All claims made by advocates for the Peters projection about Mercator distortion are correct, though one map being less wrong than the other doesn't make either map "right". What Are Latitude and Longitude Lines on Maps? In 1986 it was referred to as the Gall-Peter … Mercator’s projection was designed in the 16th century for navigational use but was adopted, inappropriately, for use as a world reference map. It became the standard map projection for navigation because it is unique in representing north as up and south as down everywhere while preserving local … It became the standard map projection for nautical purposes because of its ability to represent lines of constant course, known as rhumb lines or loxodromes, as … Map Projections: Mercator Vs The True Size of Each Country. Por essa razão é chamada de projeção equivalente. 0. While it’s well known that the mercator projection distorts the world, the maps here show very clearly by how much. Mercator colocou os meridianos perpendicularmente, um do lado do outro, cortando os paralelos. ", The Distance Between Degrees of Latitude and Longitude. Once again, the Gall-Peters vs Mercator argument has come up. The Peters … Though some major map companies with less than reputable credentials still produce some maps using the Mercator projection, these are widely dismissed. Como a Terra é esférica (na realidade, uma geoide), qualquer lugar na superfície pode ser o centro, de acordo com pontos de vista e interesses diversos. Gall – Peters projection is a equal-area cylindrical projection that named after James Gall and Arno Peters. But what to replace them with? The Peters projection map uses a rectangular coordinate system that shows parallel lines of latitude and longitude. Iniciava-se, assim, a mundialização do capitalismo com suas técnicas de produção e de comercialização. He promoted it as a superior alternative to the Mercator projection, which was suited to navigation but also used commonly in world maps. Assim, no século XVI, com as Grandes Navegações, foi criada a visão eurocêntrica do mundo, materializada na cartografia: o norte, onde se localiza a Europa, aparece acima do sul nos mapas. Maybe it's an extreme oversimplification to say that the Mercator projection is racist, or maybe it's not true on any level. Mercator map enthusiasts defend the ease of navigation of their map. Essa projeção mantém a equivalência das áreas de países e continentes; assim, os países aparecem do tamanho que realmente são. The Arno Peters Projection is recent, from 1973, but inspired by the Gall Projection from the 19th century. Some say that because Arno Peters worked at a time when worldwide decolonization was coming to an end, he tried to reset the cartographic representation of the world by taking away the importance of the western world in the maps designed so far according to Mercator Projection. Pro-Peters folks often argue that this projection merely advantages colonial powers while disadvantaging others. Skilled at marketing, Arno claimed that his map displayed third world countries more subjectively than the popular but highly distorted Mercator projection map.