A projeção de Peters invertida mostra o mundo na visão terceiro-mundista do planeta, considerando-se o momento histórico em que ela surgiu. Most alternative projections now in use, such as Robinson, Van der Grinten, or Eckert IV, still do not preserve the quality of ‘equal area’. But the popularity of the Peters Projection was likely due to a lack of knowledge about basic cartography, as this projection is still quite flawed. Mercator, ao contrário de árabes e italianos, colocou o norte na parte de cima do seu mapa. But here's how each came to prominence and, in most cases, misuse. Projeções de Mercator e Peters Entre as projeções cartográficas existentes ao longo do tempo, as mais conhecidas são as projeções de Mercator e Peters , no entanto existem outros tipos de projeções , classificados de acordo com a superfície de projeção (planas, cônicas ou cilíndricas) e de acordo com as propriedades … So which projection is better? O mapa de Mercator representa o mundo visto pelos europeus de acordo com seus interesses. Isso porque os europeus estavam conquistando e dominando territórios e povos e, por isso, sentiam-se superiores. They insisted that organizations switch to the "fairer" map immediately. Actions. Os meridianos e paralelos cruzavam-se sempre em um ângulo reto, o que permitia, com uma bússola na mão, aos navegadores orientarem-se pelos pontos cardeais e colaterais. However, the Peters projection came to be seen as the lesser of two evils. The Arno Peters Projection is recent, from 1973, but inspired by the Gall Projection from the 19th century. Today 's Points. 0. A Mercator vs. Peters controvérsia é realmente um ponto discutível. The Mercator, however, makes the North look much larger. Peters vs Mercator According to The Guardian, the Mercator projection, by pushing the equator below the halfway line of the map, while handier for representing navigation routes, exaggerates the size of land masses in the northern hemisphere. And how do their projections affect our view of the world? In addition, Mercator only distorts longitudinal distances (except very close to the poles), whereas Peters screws up the scale almost everywhere for both longitude and latitude. Fortunately, over the past few decades, the Mercator projection has fallen into disuse by most reliable sources. But what to replace them with? Get started! Advertisement. What Are Latitude and Longitude Lines on Maps? Skilled at marketing, Arno claimed that his map displayed third world countries more subjectively than the popular but highly distorted Mercator projection map. It became the standard map projection for most applications and is still cemented as the mental map of most westerners today. All claims made by advocates for the Peters projection about Mercator distortion are correct, though one map being less wrong than the other doesn't make either map "right". Servia, assim, às pretensões dos países subdesenvolvidos, principalmente africanos e asiáticos, que conseguiram sua independência política durante o processo de descolonização do pós-Guerra. The Peters Projection world map is one of the most stimulating, and controversial, images of the world. In 1988, they switched to the Robinson projection, on which high latitudes are less distorted in size than in shape in an attempt to more accurately capture the three-dimensional shape of the earth in a two-dimensional figure. November 11, 2018 7 Comments. What are the strengths and weaknesses of their projections? Todos os mapas são representações gráficas e planas da superfície terrestre. Pro-Peters folks often argue that this projection merely advantages colonial powers while disadvantaging others. Gall-Peters Mercator; Creator: James Gall / Arno Peters (1852 / 1967) Gerardus Mercator (1569) Group: Cylindric: Cylindric: Property: Equal-area: Conformal: Other Names: Gall Orthographic; Peters projection — Remarks: Original design by James Gall, independently developed again by Arno Peters in 1967 and presented to the … Superfície Terrestre - Projeção - Mapa. Como a Terra é esférica (na realidade, uma geoide), qualquer lugar na superfície pode ser o centro, de acordo com pontos de vista e interesses diversos. Finally, in 1998, the Society began using the Winkel Tripel projection, which features an even better balance between size and shape than the Robinson projection. Por essa razão é chamada de projeção equivalente. Today's Rank--0. Map found via reddit, click for larger version. Assim, a Europa, além de ficar no centro e na parte de cima do mapa, ficou maior do que é na realidade, reforçando, simbolicamente, sua posição de superioridade. In 1967, Arno Peters, a German filmmaker, devised a map projection identical to Gall's orthographic projection and presented it in 1973 as a "new invention". He promoted it as a superior alternative to the Mercator projection, which was suited to navigation but also used commonly in world maps. Game Points. Maybe it's an extreme oversimplification to say that the Mercator projection is racist, or maybe it's not true on any level. Africa, for example, is depicted as smaller than North America when it is, in reality, three times larger. and to defend the Mercator projection. The Peters projection map uses a rectangular coordinate system that shows parallel lines of latitude and longitude. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peters_projectionFrom "The West Wing" Season 2 Episode 16 All claims made by advocates for the Peters projection about Mercator distortion are correct, though one map being less wrong than the other … In 1989, seven North American professional geographic organizations (including the American Cartographic Association, National Council for Geographic Education, Association of American Geographers, and the National Geographic Society) adopted a resolution that called for a ban on all rectangular coordinate maps, including the Mercator and Peters projections. The Peters simply isn’t … Map Projections: Mercator Vs The True Size of Each Country. German historian and journalist Arno Peters called a press conference in 1973 to announce his "new" map projection that treated each country fairly by representing their areas more accurately. Try this amazing Mercator And Gall Peters Map Projections quiz which has been attempted 80 times by avid quiz takers. Even the United Nations Development Programme began using the Peters projection in its maps. Ambos os mapas são projeções retangulares e são representações pobres do planeta. Mercator has become the default option for online mapmaking, simply because so many data visualization maps rely on Google Maps or OpenStreetMap … Namely, the Mercator projection minimizes non-European or American countries and continents while enlarging privileged world powers. Outra projeção que merece destaque é a de Peters, reelaborada em 1952 pelo historiador alemão Arno Peters e publicada, pela primeira vez, em 1973. Mercator’s projection was designed in the 16th century for navigational use but was adopted, inappropriately, for use as a world reference map. If a navigator wishes to sail from Spain to the West Indies using this map, all they have to do is draw a line between the two points. Start studying Mercator vs. Peters Projection. Map projections: Mercator vs Gall-Peters learn by taking a quiz; Online quiz to learn Map projections: Mercator vs Gall-Peters; Your Skills & Rank. So, the correct tool in this case is the world mapped using the Peters projection. Peters is an equal-area projection which became the centrepiece of a controversy surrounding the political implications of map design. New believers in the Peters map were vociferous in demanding the use of this newer, better map. Mercator and Peters explain all in the Chat Show. Peters only chose to compare his strange-looking map to the Mercator map because he knew that the latter was an inappropriate representation of the earth, but so was his. Iniciava-se, assim, a mundialização do capitalismo com suas técnicas de produção e de comercialização. Therefore, Peters argued, the Mercator projection shows a euro-centric bias and harms the world's perception of developing countries. The Mercator map was designed as an aid to navigators with straight lines, loxodromes or rhumb lines—representing lines of constant compass bearing—that are perfect for "true" direction. Até hoje, ela é utilizada na navegação marítima, principalmente pelo fato de acentuar as áreas em altas latitudes, destacando as regiões polares. Today, relatively few use either the Peters or Mercator map, yet the evangelizing continues. 6. In essence, the Peters projection was a response to a question that had already been answered. One of the characteristics, of area, shape or direction, must be sacrificed. However, it can accurately be zoomed into a local scale with precision. Embora o mapa-múndi de Peters continue expressando uma visão eurocêntrica do mundo, é visível o destaque dado aos países de baixa latitude, os quais, na projeção de Mercator, tinham suas áreas subestimadas. The Mercator projection (/ m ər ˈ k eɪ t ər /) is a cylindrical map projection presented by Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. Compromise projections like the Robinson and Winkel Tripel are far superior to their predecessors because they present the world as globe-like, making them worthy of support from almost all geographers. Once again, the Gall-Peters vs Mercator argument has come up. When this map was first introduced by historian and cartographer Dr. Arno Peters at a Press Conference in Germany in 1974 it generated a firestorm of debate. Some say that because Arno Peters worked at a time when worldwide decolonization was coming to an end, he tried to reset the cartographic representation of the world by taking away the importance of the western world in the maps designed so far according to Mercator Projection. One of us! A projeção de Mercator distorce muito o tamanho das terras, principalmente as localizadas em altas latitudes, mas preserva a forma de continentes e países. However, because most people are happily unaware of this notion, they will look at a Mercator projection and believe Greenland is bigger than Africa. While it’s well known that the mercator projection distorts the world, the maps here show very clearly by how much. You need to get 100% to score the 6 points available. Compare the map projections Mercator and Miller. Essa projeção mantém a equivalência das áreas de países e continentes; assim, os países aparecem do tamanho que realmente são. Proponents of the Peters projection map claim that their map is an accurate, fair, and unbiased depiction of the world when comparing theirs to the almost-defunct Mercator map, which features enlarged depictions of euro-centric countries and continents. Both maps are rectangular projections and are poor representations of the planet. The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. Gall-Peters projection (Wikimedia Commons) In a development that just might make academic cartographers pull out their remaining hair in frustration, Boston’s public schools began using the Peters projection in social studies classes last week.The news coverage (see the Grauniad’s) is the usual straw man argument about the Mercator and the false dichotomy between it and the Peters… Mas aqui é como cada um ganhou destaque e, na maioria dos casos, o uso indevido. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Compare these to this map which corrects for distortions and preserves the true size and shape of Greenland at low … As we have learned, the Mercator is not a good overall scaled map when viewing large areas. It became the standard map projection for nautical purposes because of its ability to represent lines of constant course, known as rhumb lines or loxodromes, as … These are the projections that you are most likely to see today. Com a ajuda do astrolábio e com as coordenadas do mapa, os navegado res conseguiam determinar a latitude e realizar suas viagens com mais segurança. In a 1980s study, two British geographers discovered that the Mercator map did not exist among dozens of atlases examined. The Gall-Peter’s map projection was first published by James Gall in 1855. But simply closing yourself off to any further discussion of or support for the point isn't going to help you in any way. There's a lot you could say there. Peters only chose to compare his strange-looking map to the Mercator map because he knew that the latter was an inappropriate representation of the earth, but so was his. Mercator colocou os meridianos perpendicularmente, um do lado do outro, cortando os paralelos. The Mercator Projection. Total Points. Unfortunately, geographers and cartographers agree that neither map projection is appropriate—the Mercator vs. Peters controversy is, therefore, a moot point. Gall – Peters projection is a equal-area cylindrical projection that named after James Gall and Arno Peters. Entre as projeções cartográficas existentes ao longo do tempo, as mais conhecidas são as projeções de Mercator e Peters, no entanto existem outros tipos de projeções, classificados de acordo com a superfície de projeção (planas, cônicas ou cilíndricas) e de acordo com as propriedades (equivalentes, conformes e equidistantes). Foi elaborada no século XVI com a expansão marítima europeia. ", The Distance Between Degrees of Latitude and Longitude. As Mercator maps were already spiraling into obsoletion, a historian attempted to speed up this process by presenting a new map. The Mercator projection was developed in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator as a navigational tool. To highlight the difference in distortion at low and high latitudes, I've superimposed Greenland over Africa in all three projections. MERCATOR vs PETERS Projeções de Mercator e Peters: Diferentes maneiras de ver o Mundo! Except where otherwise noted, images on this site are by Tobias Jung and are … Entretanto, quando foi assinado o Acordo de Washington, em 1884, entre Estados Unidos e Reino Unido, tomou-se o Meridiano de Greenwich como referencial de longitude e de fuso horário. In reality, the Mercator map was never intended to be used as a wall map and by the time Peters started complaining about it, the Mercator map was well on its way out of fashion anyway. A tendência dos povos de valorizarem sua cultura e seu modo de vida, considerando-se modelo para todos os demais, denomina-se etnocentrismo. Many feel that these discrepancies reflect racism and prejudice against underprivileged and developing countries. The Mercator map has always been inadequate as a world map due to its rectangular grid and shape, but geographically illiterate publishers once found it useful for designing wall, atlas, and book maps, even maps found in newspapers published by non-geographers. In many ways the past debates over the Mercator are moot: arguing over the right projection for wall-sized world maps—Mercator vs. Peters vs. Robinson—is fighting the last war. It became the standard map projection for navigation because it is unique in representing north as up and south as down everywhere while preserving local … Both maps are rectangular projections that are poor representations of a spherical planet. In 1986 it was referred to as the Gall-Peter … This is why Mercator beats out Peters in the world of cartography, and why Google Maps uses a modified Mercator projection. This tells them which compass direction to continually sail in until they reach their destination. The National Geographic Society adopted the Van der Grinten projection, which encloses the world in a circle, in 1922. Ela é uma projeção conforme. While the Peters projection does (almost) represent land area accurately, all map projections distort the shape of the earth, a sphere. This is why Mercator beats out Peters in the world of cartography, and why Google Maps uses a modified Mercator projection. Also explore over 42 similar quizzes in this category. Non-rectangular maps have been around for a long time. A projeção de Mercator é um marco na história da cartografia por ser uma das primeiras a mostrar o planeta inteiro. Essa visão foi consolidada com o passar do tempo.